Glycerin - Glycerin is a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol, or polyol, and occurs naturally in fermented foods and beverages, including beer, honey, vinegar, wine and wine vinegar. It is used in a variety of food and drink products, including energy bars, cake icings, soft sweets, chewing gum, condiments, diet foods, dried fruits, fudge and marshmallows.
Glycerin’s safety has been confirmed by multiple global health authorities.

Hydrated Silica - Depending on the specific material and formulation, hydrated silica can be used as a thickener for gel toothpaste, a mild abrasive for cleaning or as a whitening agent in toothpaste. You're also very likely to find this ingredient in your bathroom's medicine cabinet in some of your everyday products, as it is a common ingredient found in many cosmetics and toothpaste. It is an abrasive, absorbent, and bulking agent in personal care product formulas and is perfectly safe to use in toothpaste.

Sodium Bicarbonate - Commonly known as baking soda, Sodium Bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste and is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.

Xylitol - Xylitol is categorised as a sugar alcohol and is found in small amounts in many fruits and vegetables and is therefore considered natural. Humans even produce small quantities of it via normal metabolism. It is a common ingredient in sugar-free chewing gums, mints, diabetes-friendly foods and oral-care products. Xylitol has a similar sweetness as regular sugar but contains 40% fewer calories.

Cellulose Gum - Cellulose gum is a common food additive used to thicken and stabilise a variety of foods, and is produced from the structural parts of certain plants, primarily trees or cotton. Cellulose gum sources are farmed sustainably and processed using a form of acetic acid and salt. Acetic acid is a mild acid which is a main component of vinegar. After mixing the cotton or wood with acetic acid and salt, the mixture is filtered and dried to create a fine powder—the cellulose gum. Cellulose gum is very useful, as only a small amount needs to be added to foods to maintain moisture or increase texture and thickness.

CI 77891 "Titanium Dioxide" - Titanium dioxide is a powdery, white colourant used in a wide variety of products, and is mentioned on the ingredient list of food products as additive E171 or titanium dioxide. On toothpaste, titanium dioxide is indicated by CI 77891.

Cocamidopropyl Betaine - This is a cleansing ingredient found in dozens of products. It has been used in personal care products for decades, especially in items meant to clean skin or hair. If you tried to use it alone, it wouldn't give you a deep cleaning effect on your hair or skin, but it makes cleansers work better when it's combined with other ingredients.

Mentha Arvensis (Wild Mint) Leaf Oil - Mentha arvensis is a species in the mint family found in many temperate parts of the world. These perennial plants grow to around 60cm tall, with dark green leaves and pale purple flowers. The highly fragrant leaves can be hydro or steam distilled to produce mint essential oil, which is used in foods, flavours, fragrances and pharmaceuticals. This oil is reported to possess a wide spectrum of herbicidal, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities.

Stevioside - Stevioside, a compound extracted from stevia leaves, is a sweetener that stands out among the natural sweeteners. This extract is a white powder composed of stevioside and its anomers, the rebaudiosides, which are responsible for the sweetness of the compound. In addition to its sweetening property, various studies have linked stevioside to beneficial health properties, such as being a source of vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, and antimicrobial properties.

Sodium Chloride - Sodium Chloride is the chemical name for salt, and is an electrolyte that regulates the amount of water in your body. Sodium also plays a part in nerve impulses and muscle contractions, and is used to treat or prevent sodium loss caused by dehydration, excessive sweating, or other causes.

Mentha Piperita Oil (peppermint) - Mentha piperita is a popular herb that can be used in numerous forms (ie, oil, leaf, leaf extract, and leaf water). Peppermint oil has the most uses, and is used in cosmeceuticals, personal hygiene products, foods, and pharmaceutical products for both its flavouring and fragrance properties. It also has a variety of therapeutic properties and is used in aromatherapy, bath preparations, mouthwashes, toothpastes, and topical preparations. Topical preparations of peppermint oil have been used to calm pruritus and relieve irritation and inflammation.

Limonene - Limonene is a chemical found in the peels of citrus fruits and in other plants. It is used to make medicine for obesity, cancer, and bronchitis, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. In foods, beverages, and chewing gum, limonene is used as a flavouring ingredient.